Operations and Maintenance of Rural Infrastructure in Community-Driven Development and Community-Based Projects
Lessons Learned and Case Studies of Good Practice
World Bank Group: By Andreas Salomonsen and Myrtle Diachok: June 29, 2015
The World Bank encourages the use of community-driven development (CDD) and
community-based approaches to build rural infrastructure in some of the world’s poorest countries and communities. Over the past 10 years, CDD projects and components have constituted between 5 and 10 percent of World Bank lending. CDD emphasizes community control over decision making and investment resources for local infrastructure and service delivery. The approach has significantly increased access to community infrastructure and services such as roads, irrigation, water and sanitation, electricity, basic education, and health (Wong 2012). CDD is widely used in the least-developed countries of the world and in fragile and post conflict contexts, and is often used by middle-income countries to reach the poorest or most marginalized populations. Given the levels of investment and the importance CDD plays in extending basic services, particularly to the poor, continued operation and maintenance (O&M)
of the basic investments supported under CDD (and other community-based operations) is a logical concern that has been raised by both practitioners and critics (OED 2005).
This paper highlights examples of successful O&M arrangements under community-
driven and -based development projects to better understand the factors contributing to their success. The intended beneficiaries of this assessment are client governments implementing CDD and community-based projects for similar types of rural infrastructure, task teams, and other potential users. In addition to highlighting factors of success, this paper shares relevant materials, procedures, and guidelines to help support O&M systems.
This paper is based on a desk review of World Bank operational documents as well as
external literature on O&M related to rural infrastructure across several sectors. The seven project cases analyzed for this review were selected based on evidence of successful O&M arrangements from a longer list of more than 50 projects compiled by members of the CDD Community of Practice (COP) and World Bank staff from the water, social protection, and transport sectors. The desk review of relevant project documents was supplemented by discussions with task team members and government project staff. The seven case study projects include:
- Afghanistan National Solidarity Program (NSP 1, 2 and 3)
- Azerbaijan Rural Investment Projects (1 and 2)
- India Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project
- Indonesia National Program for Community Empowerment in Rural Areas (PNPM Rural),
- Nepal Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects (1 and 2)
- Peru Rural Roads Program (1-3)
- The Philippines’ KALAHI Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services/National CDD Project
The review found four critical factors for O&M success, and these areas serve as the analytical framework for this paper.
- Organizational and institutional arrangements: Comprising the organizational structure and roles and responsibilities for operating and maintaining the infrastructure at the community and local administration levels.
- Capacity building: High-quality, timely training.
- Financing: Revenue collection and cost-sharing mechanisms, and willingness and ability to pay.
- Technical considerations: Design and technology choices, and complexity.
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